Words Of Glass Fiber

1. Introduction

This standard specifies the terms and definitions involved in reinforcement materials such as glass fiber, carbon fiber, resin, additive, molding compound and prepreg.

This standard is applicable to the preparation and publication of relevant standards, as well as the preparation and publication of relevant books, periodicals and technical documents.

2. General terms

2.1 Cone yarn (Pagoda yarn): A textile yarn cross wound on a conical bobbin.

2.2 Surface treatment: In order to improve the adhesion with matrix resin, the fiber surface is treated.

2.3 Multifiber bundle: For more info: a kind of textile material composed of multiple monofilaments.

2.4 Single yarn: The simplest continuous tow consisting of one of the following textile materials:

a) The yarn formed by twisting several discontinuous fibers is called fixed length fiber yarn;

b) The yarn formed by twisting one or more continuous fiber filaments at one time is called continuous fiber yarn.

Note: in the glass fiber industry, single yarn is twisted.

2.5 Monofilament filament: A thin and long textile unit, which can be continuous or discontinuous.

2.6 Nominal diameter of filaments: It is used to mark the diameter of glass fiber monofilament in glass fiber products, which is approximately equal to its actual average diameter. with μ M is the unit, which is about an integer or semi integer.

2.7 Mass per unit area: The ratio of the mass of a flat material of a certain size to its area.

2.8 Fixed length fiber: discontinuous fibre, A textile material with a fine discontinuous diameter formed during molding.

2.9: Fixed length fiber yarn, A yarn spun from a fixed length fiber. two point one zero Breaking elongation The elongation of the specimen when it breaks in the tensile test.

2.10 Multiple wound yarn: A yarn made of two or more yarns without twisting.

Note: single yarn, strand yarn or cable can be made into multi strand winding.

2.12 Bobbin yarn: Yarn processed by twisting machine and wound on bobbin.

2.13 Moisture content: The moisture content of the precursor or product measured under specified conditions. That is, the ratio of the difference between the wet and dry mass of the sample to the wet mass Value, expressed as a percentage.

2.14 Plied yarn Strand yarn A yarn formed by twisting two or more yarns in one ply process.

2.15 Hybrid products: An aggregate product composed of two or more fiber materials, such as an aggregate product composed of glass fiber and carbon fiber.

2.16Sizing agent size: In the production of fibers, a mixture of certain chemicals applied to monofilaments.

There are three types of wetting agents: plastic type, textile type and textile plastic type:

- plastic size, also known as reinforcing size or coupling size, is a kind of sizing agent that can make the fiber surface and matrix resin bond well. Contain components conducive to further processing or application (winding, cutting, etc.);

-- textile sizing agent, a sizing agent prepared for the next step of textile processing (twisting, blending, weaving, etc.);

- textile plastic type wetting agent, which is not only conducive to the next textile processing, but also can enhance the adhesion between the fiber surface and the matrix resin.

2.17 Warp yarn: Textile yarn wound in parallel on a large cylindrical warp shaft.

2.18 Roll package: Yarn, roving and other units that can be unwound and suitable for handling, storage, transportation and use.

Note: winding can be unsupported hank or silk cake, or winding unit prepared by various winding methods on bobbin, weft tube, conical tube, winding tube, spool, bobbin or weaving shaft.

2.19 Tensile breaking strength: tensile breaking tenacity In the tensile test, the tensile breaking strength per unit area or linear density of the sample. The unit of monofilament is PA and the unit of yarn is n / tex.

2.20 In the tensile test, the maximum force applied when the sample breaks, in n.

2.21 Cable yarn: A yarn formed by twisting two or more strands (or the intersection of strands and single yarns) together one or more times.

2.22 Milk bottle bobbin: Winding yarn in the shape of a milk bottle.

2.23 Twist:  The number of turns of yarn in a certain length along the axial direction, generally expressed in twist / meter.

2.24 Twist balance index:  After twisting the yarn, the twist is balanced.

2.25 Twist back turn: Each twist of yarn twisting is the angular displacement of relative rotation between yarn sections along the axial direction. Twist back with an angular displacement of 360 °.

2.26 Direction of twist: After twisting, the inclined direction of the precursor in the single yarn or the single yarn in the strand yarn. From the lower right corner to the upper left corner is called S twist, and from the lower left corner to the upper right corner is called Z twist.

2.27 Yarn yarn: It is a general term for various structural textile materials with or without twist made of continuous fibers and fixed length fibers.

2.28 Marketable yarn: The factory produces yarn for sale.

2.29 Rope cord: Continuous fiber yarn or fixed length fiber yarn is a yarn structure made by twisting, stranding or weaving.

2.30 Tow tow: An untwisted aggregate consisting of a large number of monofilaments.

2.31 Modulus of elasticity: The proportion of stress and strain of an object within the elastic limit. There are tensile and compressive modulus of elasticity (also known as young's modulus of elasticity), shear and bending modulus of elasticity, with PA (Pascal) as the unit.

2.32 Bulk density: Apparent density of loose materials such as powder and granular materials.

2.33 Desized product: Remove the yarn or fabric of wetting agent or size by appropriate solvent or thermal cleaning.

2.34 Weft tube yarn cop Silk pirn

A single or multiple strand of textile yarn wound around a weft tube.

2.35 Fiber fiber A fine filamentous material unit with a large aspect ratio.

2.36 Fiber web: With the help of specific methods, fiber materials are arranged into a network plane structure in an orientation or non orientation, which generally refers to semi-finished products.

2.37 Linear density: The mass per unit length of yarn with or without wetting agent, in tex.

Note: in yarn naming, linear density usually refers to the density of bare yarn dried and without wetting agent.

2.38 Strand precursor: A slightly bonded untwisted single tow drawn at the same time.

2.39 Moldability of a mat or fabric Moldability of felt or fabric

The degree of difficulty for the felt or fabric wetted by resin to be stably attached to the mold of a certain shape.

3. Fiberglass

3.1 Ar glass fiber Alkali resistant glass fiber

It can resist the long-term erosion of alkali substances. It is mainly used to strengthen the glass fiber of Portland cement.

3.2 Styrene solubility: When the glass fiber chopped strand felt is immersed in styrene, the time required for the felt to break due to the dissolution of the binder under a certain tensile load.

3.3 Textured yarn Bulked yarn

Continuous glass fiber textile yarn (single or composite yarn) is a bulky yarn formed by dispersing the monofilament after deformation treatment.

3.4 Surface mat: A compact sheet made of glass fiber monofilament (fixed length or continuous) bonded and used as the surface layer of composites.

See: overlaid felt (3.22).

3.5 Glass fibre fibreglass

It generally refers to the glassy fiber or filament made of silicate melt.

3.6 Coated glass fiber products: Glass fiber products coated with plastic or other materials.

3.7 Zonality ribbonization The ability of glass fiber roving to form ribbons by slight bonding between parallel filaments.

3.8 Film former: A major component of a wetting agent. Its function is to form a film on the fiber surface, prevent wear and facilitate the bonding and bunching of monofilaments.

3.9 D glass fibre Low dielectric glass fiber Glass fiber drawn from low dielectric glass. Its dielectric constant and dielectric loss are less than those of alkali free glass fiber.

3.10 Monofilament mat: A planar structural material in which continuous glass fiber monofilaments are bonded together with a binder.

3.11 Fixed length glass fiber products: The utility model relates to a product composed of fixed length glass fiber.

3.12 Fixed length fiber sliver: Fixed length fibers are basically arranged in parallel and slightly twisted into a continuous fiber bundle.

3.13 Chopped choppability: The difficulty of glass fiber roving or precursor being cut under a certain short cutting load.

3.14 Chopped strands: Short cut continuous fiber precursor without any form of combination.

3.15 Chopped strand mat: It is a plane structural material made of continuous fiber precursor chopped, randomly distributed and bonded together with adhesive.

3.16 E glass fibre Alkali free glass fiber Glass fiber with little alkali metal oxide content and good electrical insulation (its alkali metal oxide content is generally less than 1%).

Note: at present, China's alkali free glass fiber product standards stipulate that the content of alkali metal oxide shall not be greater than 0.8%.

3.17 Textile glass: General term for textile materials made of continuous glass fiber or fixed length glass fiber as base material.

3.18 Splitting efficiency: The efficiency of untwisted roving dispersed into single strand precursor segments after short cutting.

3.19 Stitched mat knitted mat A glass fiber felt sewn with a coil structure.

Note: see felt (3.48).

3.20 Sewing thread: A high twist, smooth ply yarn made of continuous glass fiber, used for sewing.

3.21 Composite mat: Some forms of glass fiber reinforced materials are plane structural materials bonded by mechanical or chemical methods.

Note: reinforcement materials usually include chopped precursor, continuous precursor, untwisted coarse gauze and others.

3.22 Glass veil: A plane structural material made of continuous (or chopped) glass fiber monofilament with slight bonding.

3.23 High silica glass fiber high silica glass fibre

Glass fiber formed by acid treatment and sintering after glass drawing. Its silica content is more than 95%.

3.24 Cut strands Fixed length fiber (rejected) Glass fiber precursor cut from the precursor cylinder and cut according to the required length.

See: fixed length fiber (2.8)

3.25 Size residue: Carbon content of glass fiber containing textile wetting agent remaining on the fiber after thermal cleaning, expressed as mass percentage.

3.26 Sizing agent migration: The removal of glass fiber wetting agent from the inside of the silk layer to the surface layer.

3.27 Wet out rate: A quality index for measuring glass fiber as reinforcement. Determine the time required for the resin to completely fill the precursor and monofilament according to a certain method. The unit is expressed in seconds.

3.28 No twist roving (for over end unwinding): Untwisted roving made by twisting slightly when joining strands. When this product is used, the yarn drawn from the end of the package can be demoulded into yarn without any twist.

3.29 Combustible matter content: The ratio of loss on ignition to dry mass of dry glass fiber products.

3.30 Continuous glass fiber products: The utility model relates to a product composed of continuous glass fiber long fiber bundles.

3.31 Continuous strand mat: It is a plane structural material made by bonding uncut continuous fiber precursor together with adhesive.

3.32 Tire cord: Continuous fiber yarn is a multi strand twist formed by impregnation and twisting for many times. It is generally used to strengthen rubber products.

3.33 M glass fibre High modulus glass fiber High elastic glass fiber (rejected)

Glass fiber made of high modulus glass. Its elastic modulus is generally more than 25% higher than that of E glass fiber.

3.34 Terry roving: A roving formed by the repeated twisting and superposition of glass fiber precursor itself, which is sometimes reinforced by one or more straight precursors.

3.35 Milled fibers: A very short fiber made by grinding.

3.36 Binder binding agent Material applied to filaments or monofilaments in order to fix them in the required distribution state. If used in chopped strand mat, continuous strand mat and surface felt.

3.37 Coupling agent: A substance that promotes or establishes a stronger bond between the interface between the resin matrix and the reinforcing material.

Note: the coupling agent can be applied to the reinforcing material or added to the resin or both.

3.38 Coupling finish: A material applied to a fiberglass textile to provide a good bond between the fiberglass surface and the resin.

3.39 S glass fibre High strength glass fiber The new ecological strength of glass fiber drawn with glass of silicon aluminum magnesium system is more than 25% higher than that of alkali free glass fiber.

3.40 Wet lay mat: Using chopped glass fiber as raw material and adding some chemical additives to disperse it into slurry in water, it is made into plane structural material through the processes of copying, dehydration, sizing and drying.

3.41 Metal coated glass fiber: Glass fiber with single fiber or fiber bundle surface coated with a metal film.

3.42 Geogrid: The utility model relates to a glass fiber plastic coated or asphalt coated mesh for geotechnical engineering and civil engineering.

3.43 Roving roving: A bundle of parallel filaments (multi strand roving) or parallel monofilaments (direct roving) combined without twisting.

3.44 New ecological fiber: Pull down the fiber under specific conditions, and mechanically intercept the newly made monofilament without any wear below the drawing leakage plate.

3.45 Stiffness: The degree to which glass fiber roving or precursor is not easy to change shape due to stress. When the yarn is hung at a certain distance from the center, it is indicated by the hanging distance at the lower center of the yarn.

3.46 Strand integrity: The monofilament in the precursor is not easy to disperse, break and wool, and has the ability to keep the precursor intact into bundles.

3.47 Strand system: According to the multiple and half multiple relationship of continuous fiber precursor tex, it is merged and arranged into a certain series.

The relationship between the linear density of the precursor, the number of fibers (number of holes in the leakage plate) and the fiber diameter is expressed by formula (1):

d=22.46 × (1)

Where: D - fiber diameter, μ m;

T - linear density of precursor, Tex;

N - number of fibers

3.48 Felt mat: A planar structure consisting of chopped or uncut continuous filaments that are oriented or not oriented together.

3.49 Needled mat: The felt made by hooking the elements together on the acupuncture machine can be with or without substrate material.

Note: see felt (3.48).

three point five zero

Direct roving

A certain number of monofilaments are directly wound into a twistless roving under the drawing leakage plate.

3.50 Medium alkali glass fiber: A kind of glass fiber produced in China. The content of alkali metal oxide is about 12%.

4. Carbon fiber

4.1 PAN based carbon fiber PAN based carbon fiber Carbon fiber prepared from polyacrylonitrile (Pan) matrix.

Note: the changes of tensile strength and elastic modulus are related to carbonation.

See: carbon fiber matrix (4.7).

4.2 Pitch base carbon fiber: Carbon fiber made from anisotropic or isotropic asphalt matrix.

Note: the elastic modulus of carbon fiber made from anisotropic asphalt matrix is higher than that of the two matrices.

See: carbon fiber matrix (4.7).

4.3 Viscose based carbon fiber: Carbon fiber made from viscose matrix.

Note: the production of carbon fiber from viscose matrix has actually been stopped, and only a small amount of viscose fabric is used for production.

See: carbon fiber matrix (4.7).

4.4 Graphitization: Heat treatment in an inert atmosphere, usually at a higher temperature after carbonization.

Note: "graphitization" in industry is actually the improvement of physical and chemical properties of carbon fiber, but in fact, it is difficult to find the structure of graphite.

4.5 Carbonization: Heat treatment process from carbon fiber matrix to carbon fiber in inert atmosphere.

4.6 Carbon fiber: Fibers with a carbon content of more than 90% (mass percentage) prepared by pyrolysis of organic fibers.

Note: carbon fibers are generally graded according to their mechanical properties, especially tensile strength and elastic modulus.

4.7 Carbon fiber precursor: Organic fibers that can be converted into carbon fibers by pyrolysis.

Note: the matrix is usually continuous yarn, but woven fabric, knitted fabric, woven fabric and felt are also used.

See: polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber (4.1), asphalt based carbon fiber (4.2), viscose based carbon fiber (4.3).

4.8 Untreated fiber: Fibers without surface treatment.

4.9 Oxidation: Pre oxidation of parent materials such as polyacrylonitrile, asphalt and viscose in air before carbonization and graphitization.

5. Fabric

5.1 Wall covering fabric Wall covering Flat fabric for wall decoration

5.2 Braiding A method of interweaving yarn or twistless roving

5.3 Braid A fabric made of several textile yarns obliquely intertwined with each other, in which the yarn direction and the fabric length direction are generally not 0 ° or 90 °.

5.4 Marker yarn A yarn with a different color and / or composition from the reinforcing yarn in a fabric, used to identify products or facilitate the arrangement of fabrics during molding.

5.5 Treatment agent finish A coupling agent applied to textile glass fiber products to combine the surface of glass fiber with resin matrix, usually on fabrics.

5.6 Unidirectional fabric A plane structure with obvious difference in the number of yarns in warp and weft directions. (take unidirectional woven fabric as an example).

5.7 Staple fiber woven fabric The warp yarn and weft yarn are made of fixed length glass fiber yarn.

5.8 Satin weave There are at least five warp and weft yarns in a complete tissue; There is only one latitude (longitude) organization point on each longitude (latitude); Fabric fabric with flying number greater than 1 and no common divisor with the number of yarn circulating in the fabric. Those with more warp points are warp satin, and those with more weft points are weft satin.

5.9 Multi layer fabric A textile structure composed of two or more layers of the same or different materials by sewing or chemical bonding, in which one or more layers are arranged in parallel without wrinkles. The yarns of each layer may have different orientations and different linear densities. Some product layer structures also include felt, film, foam, etc. with different materials.

5.10 Non woven scrim A network of nonwovens formed by bonding two or more layers of parallel yarns with a binder. The yarn in the back layer is at an angle to the yarn in the front layer.

5.11 Width The vertical distance from the first warp of the cloth to the outer edge of the last warp.

5.12 Bow and weft bow An appearance defect in which the weft yarn is in the width direction of the fabric in an arc.

Note: the appearance defect of arc warp yarn is called bow warp, and its English corresponding word is "bow".

5.13 Tubing (in Textiles) A tubular tissue with a flattened width of more than 100 mm.

See: bushing (5.30).

5.14 Filter bag Grey cloth is a pocket shaped article made by heat treatment, impregnation, baking and post-processing, which is used for gas filtration and industrial dust removal.

5.15 Thick and thin segment mark wavy cloth The appearance defect of thick or thin fabric segments caused by too dense or too thin weft.

5.16 Post finished fabric The desized fabric is then coupled with the treated fabric.

See: desizing cloth (5.35).

5.17 Blended fabric Warp yarn or weft yarn is a cloth made of mixed yarn twisted by two or more fiber yarns.

5.18 Hybrid fabric A fabric made of more than two essentially different yarns.

5.19 Woven fabric In weaving machinery, at least two groups of yarns are woven perpendicular to each other or at a specific angle.

5.20 Latex coated fabric Latex cloth (rejected) The fabric is processed by dipping and coating natural latex or synthetic latex.

5.21 Interlaced fabric Warp and weft yarns are made of different materials or different types of yarns.

5.22 Leno end out Appearance defect of missing warp yarn on the hem

5.23 Warp density Warp density The number of warp yarns per unit length in the weft direction of the fabric, expressed in pieces / cm.

5.24 Warp warp warp Yarns arranged along the length of the fabric (i.e. 0 ° direction). 

5.25 Continuous fiber woven fabric A fabric made of continuous fibers in both warp and weft directions.

5.26 Burr length The distance from the edge of a warp on the edge of a fabric to the edge of a weft.

5.27 Grey fabric The semi-finished cloth dropped by the loom for reprocessing.

5.28 Plain weave Warp and weft yarns are woven with a cross fabric. In a complete organization, there are two warp and weft yarns.

5.29 Pre finished fabric Fabric with glass fiber yarn containing textile plastic wetting agent as raw material.

See: wetting agent (2.16).

5.30 Casing sleeping A tubular tissue with a flattened width of not more than 100 mm.

See: pipe (5.13).

5.31 Special fabric Appellation indicating the shape of fabric. The most common are:

- "socks";

- "spirals";

- "preforms", etc.

5.32 Air permeability Air permeability of fabric. The rate at which gas passes vertically through the specimen under the specified test area and pressure difference

Expressed in cm / s.

5.33 Plastic coated fabric The fabric is processed by dip coating PVC or other plastics.

5.34 Plastic coated screen plastic-coated net Products made of mesh fabric dipped with polyvinyl chloride or other plastics.

5.35 Desized fabric Fabric made of grey cloth after desizing.

See: grey cloth (5.27), desizing products (2.33).

5.36 Flexural stiffness The rigidity and flexibility of the fabric to resist bending deformation.

5.37 Filling density Weft density The number of weft yarns per unit length in the warp direction of the fabric, expressed in pieces / cm.

5.38 Weft The yarn that is generally at right angles to the warp (i.e. 90 ° direction) and runs through between the two sides of the cloth.

5.39 Declination bias The appearance defect that the weft on the fabric is inclined and not perpendicular to the warp.

5.40 Woven roving A fabric made of twistless roving.

5.41 Tape without selvage The width of textile glass fabric without selvage shall not exceed 100mm.

See: selvage free narrow fabric (5.42).

5.42 Narrow fabric without selvages Fabric without selvage, usually less than 600mm in width.

5.43 Twill weave A fabric weave in which warp or weft weave points form a continuous diagonal pattern. There are at least three warp and weft yarns in a complete tissue

5.44 Tape with selvage Textile glass fabric with selvage, width not exceeding 100mm.

See: selvage narrow fabric (5.45).

5.45 Narrow fabric with selvages A fabric with selvage, usually less than 300 mm in width.

5.46 Fish eye A small area on a fabric that prevents resin impregnation, a defect caused by a resin system, fabric, or treatment.

5.47 Weaving clouds The cloth woven under unequal tension hinders the uniform distribution of weft, resulting in the appearance defects of alternating thick and thin segments.

5.48 Crease The imprint of glass fiber cloth formed by overturning, overlapping or pressure at the wrinkle.

5.49 Knitted fabric A flat or tubular fabric made of textile fiber yarn with rings connected in series with each other.

5.50 Loose fabric woven scrim The plane structure formed by weaving warp and weft yarns with wide spacing.

5.51 Fabric construction Generally refers to the density of fabric, and also includes its organization in a broad sense.

5.52 Thickness of a fabric The vertical distance between the two surfaces of the fabric measured under the specified pressure.

5.53 Fabric count The number of yarns per unit length in the warp and weft directions of the fabric, expressed as the number of warp yarns / cm × Number of weft yarns / cm.

5.54 Fabric stability It indicates the firmness of the intersection of warp and weft in the fabric, which is expressed by the force used when the yarn in the sample strip is pulled out of the fabric structure.

5.55 Organization type of weave Regular repeating patterns composed of warp and weft interweaving, such as plain, satin and twill.

5.56 Defects Defects on the fabric that weaken its quality and performance and affect its appearance.

6. Resins and additives

6.1 Catalyst Accelerator A substance that can speed up the reaction in a small amount. Theoretically, its chemical properties will not change until the end of the reaction.

6.2 Curing cure curing The process of converting a prepolymer or polymer into a hardened material by polymerization and / or crosslinking.

6.3 Post cure After bake Heat the molded article of thermosetting material until it is completely cured.

6.4 Matrix resin A thermosetting molding material.

6.5 Cross link (verb) cross link (verb) An association that forms intermolecular covalent or ionic bonds between polymer chains.

6.6 Cross linking The process of forming covalent or ionic bonds between polymer chains.

6.7 Immersion The process by which a polymer or monomer is injected into an object along a fine pore or void by means of liquid flow, melting, diffusion or dissolution.

6.8 Gel time gel time The time required for the formation of gels under the specified temperature conditions.

6.9 Additive A substance added to improve or adjust certain properties of a polymer.

6.10 Filler There are relatively inert solid substances added to plastics to improve matrix strength, service characteristics and processability, or to reduce cost.

6.11 Pigment segment A substance used for coloring, usually fine granular and insoluble.

6.12 Expiry date pot life working life The time period during which a resin or adhesive retains its serviceability.

6.13 Thickening agent An additive that increases viscosity by chemical reaction.

6.14 Shelf life storage life Under the specified conditions, the material still retains the expected characteristics (such as processability, strength, etc.) for the storage period.

7. Molding compound and prepreg

7.1 Glass fiber reinforced plastics Glass reinforced plastics GRP Composite material with glass fiber or its products as reinforcement and plastic as matrix.

7.2 Unidirectional prepregs Unidirectional structure impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resin system.

Note: unidirectional weftless tape is a kind of unidirectional prepreg.

7.3 Low shrink In the product series, it refers to the category with linear shrinkage of 0.05% ~ 0.2% during curing.

7.4 Electrical grade In the product series, it indicates the category that should have the specified electrical performance.

7.5 Reactivity It refers to the maximum slope of temperature time function of thermosetting mixture during curing reaction, with ℃ / s as the unit.

7.6 Curing behavior Curing time, thermal expansion, curing shrinkage and net shrinkage of thermosetting mixture during molding.

7.7 Thick molding compound TMC Sheet molding compound with thickness greater than 25mm.

7.8 Mixture A uniform mixture of one or more polymers and other ingredients, such as fillers, plasticizers, catalysts and colorants.

7.9 Void content The ratio of void volume to total volume in composites, expressed as a percentage.

7.10 Bulk molding compound BMC

It is a block semi-finished product composed of resin matrix, chopped reinforcing fiber and specific filler (or no filler). It can be molded or injection molded under hot pressing conditions.

Note: add chemical thickener to improve viscosity.

7.11 Pultrusion Under the pull of the traction equipment, the continuous fiber or its products impregnated with resin glue liquid are heated through the forming mold to solidify the resin and continuously produce the forming process of composite profile.

7.12 Pultruded sections Long strip composite products produced continuously by pultrusion process usually have constant cross-sectional area and shape.

Post time: Mar-15-2022